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The Jominy end quench test. Introduction: The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a.

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High carbon steels are prone to distortion and cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment.

The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation qench arises since the cooling rate decreases with snd from the quenched end. The initial red-hot state represents the austenitic condition and the subsequent cooling results in a variety of transformations that depend on the chemical composition of the steel.

Click on the circled data points to see how the microstructure varies with distance from the quenched end. Steels with low hardenability may be used for smaller components, such as chisels and shears, or for surface hardened components such as gears.

This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. The nucleation jomkny ferrite and pearlite occurs at heterogeneous nucleation sites such as the austenite grain boundaries.

The Jominy End Quench Test

The round specimen is then ground flat along its length to a depth of 0. The recorded hardness depends on the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. The water jet is started and sprayed onto the bottom of the specimen until the specimen is cool. The Rockwell hardness test measures a number which depends on the difference in the depth of an indentation made by two loads, a minor load followed by a major load.

It’s important to use the correct conversion chart for different materials, since the hardness test causes plastic strain, and therefore varies with the strain hardening properties of the material. This results in a progressive decrease in the rate of cooling along the bar from the quenched end.


The Jominy test provides a measure of the ability of a steel to harden by transforming into martensite under set conditions, i. The hardness of the samples was measured as a function of the distance from the quenched end to demonstrate the different hardenability of the two steels. Steels with high hardenability are needed for large high strength components, such as large extruder screws for injection moulding of polymers, pistons for rock breakers, mine shaft supports, aircraft undercarriages, and also for small high precision components such as die-casting moulds, drills and presses for stamping coins.

It is then carefully and quickly moved to the quenching machine and positioned above a water jet. In this heat flow simulation you can adjust various parameters and observe the effect on the heat flow and cooling of the specimen.

The hardenability depends on the alloy composition of the steel, and can also be affected by prior processing, such as the austenitisation temperature. In the example here, the surface will be transformed to martensite, but the core will have a bainitic structure with some martensite.

The Jominy End Quench Test

Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a 1mm diameter wood-working drill. The steel sample is normalised to eliminate differences in microstructure due to previous forging, and then austenitised. The Vickers hardness test uses a square pyramidal diamond indentor. Carbon controls the hardness of the martensite.

Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability. Similar tests have been developed in other countries, such as the SAC test, which uses a sample quenched from all sides by immersion in water.

There are quite complex interactions between the different elements, which also affect the temperatures of the phase transformation and the resultant microstructure.

DoITPoMS – TLP Library The Jominy End Quench Test

The Jominy Test involves heating a test piece from the steel 25mm diameter and mm long to an austenitising temperature and quenching from one end with a quenchh and standardised jet of water. Increasing the austenite grain size increases the hardenability of steels. Here a specimen is in place. The Rockwell test is commonly used in the USA.


Structure of En 8 at the quenched end of Jominy bar. The retardation is due to the need for redistribution of the alloying elements during the diffusional phase transformation from austenite to ferrite and pearlite. High hardness occurs where high volume fractions of martensite develop. Hardenability is the ability of a steel to partially or completely transform from austenite to some fraction of martensite at a given depth below the surface, when cooled under a given condition.

Three low alloy steels, which differ only in their carbon content 0. James Marrow University of Cambridge Content development: The resultant microstructure is quite coarse, with reduced toughness and ductility. This TLP considers the basic concepts of hardenability and the Jominy test. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used to determine whether a particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters.

Effects of alloying and microstructure Example Jominy end quench test data Heat flow simulation Quench test simulation Summary Questions Going further. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels enr mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in an injection moulding die for a mobile phone plastic case. The austenite grain size can be affected by other stages in the processing of steel, and therefore the hardenability of a steel also depends on the previous stages tesr in its production.

Jominy End Quench Test

Your browser does not support the video tag. Three medium carbon steels 0.

The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents. Again, you have three steels.