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Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Cognition and Emotion, — Pdychological, a large price tag, such as for the purchase of a new car, makes the associated freedoms highly important to the consumer.

Psychological Reactance: Theory and Applications by Jack W. Brehm

Interestingly, most of the presented studies viewed reactance primarily as an undesirable factor that has to be eliminated or at least reduced. Whereas in the previous rractance Baum et al.

Validation of a scale measuring state reactance. Rebel without a conscious cause: Reactance theory revisited In Chadee D.

And if that is tehory staggering enough, just remember that the different kinds of freedoms that are of equal or less importance also may be threatened over future occasions. This is the obvious lesson about consumer behavior that we learn from reactance theory and its assertion about the effect of implied threats to freedoms. Persuasive messages arouse reactance especially by using forceful and controlling language, such as the terms should, ought, must, and need. Focusing on limitations that will result from the change has been shown to evoke more experience of reactance using Jonas et al.

Although it is difficult to explore these processes in real-world phenomena, it would be enormously enriching for reactance research. The reactannce decision, which of several similar products or services to select, involves the freedoms to have each product or service, and the freedoms to psyvhological each. Presumably, you would like to know what all this has to do with understanding consumer behavior.

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However, it is unclear if this model generalizes to all reactance situations, that is, also to those outside the persuasion context. Galen Strawson – – Inquiry: Manuscript submitted for publication. Rethinking the value of choice: Conversion of reactance motives into effortful goal pursuit: Psychological reactance increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

Understanding Psychological Reactance

Intervention-elicited reactance and its implications: For short messages, it has been found that the framing of the message as loss e. However, research still does not agree on the factor structure. Here, we present our review of research on the measurement of reactance, the role of culture and self, vicarious reactance, determinants of reactance in the context of persuasion, and the crucial role of motivation in reactance processes.

The more general picture is that consumers have a complex relationship with innumerable organizations or agencies, and any of these relationships is easily capable of threatening a consumer freedom and simultaneously implying threats to a number of additional freedoms. If, after announcing an intention to use the car, your spouse explains that a special emergency has arisen that requires use of the car, then you will understand that pre-empting car usage is not likely to recur.

Psychological Review, — However, in other situations, they might be distinguishable from each other. So let us consider how reactance theory applies to consumer behavior and let’s start with what freedoms the consumer has. In a theoretical overview on reactance, Chadee even proposed that approach motivation is the necessary prerequisite for reactance to emerge.

A Theory of Psychological Reactance – Jack Williams Brehm – Google Books

A final, classic, example of potential implied threats to freedoms lies in one’s relationship to local, state, and federal governments Without going into the gory details, let me just remind you that a stop sign can be installed at an intersection where you don’t have time to stop in the morning, your land can be seized to be part of a new state highway, and you can lose federal tax deductions for some business expenses.


In fact, I doubt that people could easily articulate freedoms that are threatened by implication. Energization and goal attractiveness In Pervin L. For example, even though I live in Lawrence, Kansas, I am aware that out there somewhere in the world there are French, Thais, and Nigerian restaurants. The neural basis of mentalizing. All in all, there could be some huge number of freedoms threatened by implication.

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Different lines of research all suggest that one important component of reactance is the experience of anger. What reasons might the other one have?

If the threat is absolute, that is, sure to come into effect, people rationalize it. Personality and Individual Differences, 85— On the relationship of frontal brain activity and anger: Both effects, rationalization and psycyological, were strongest if the restriction was self-relevant.

Neuron, — Reactance can throry be aroused in subtle ways and even outside of conscious awareness. These two examples, plus the hypothetical example of your spouse claiming the car for the night, illustrate one other important point about how freedoms are threatened by implication.